Release time:2019-06-20 10:41:48
1. What are the main differences between CNC engraving and CNC milling?
CNC engraving processing and CNC milling processing are using the principle of milling.The main difference is in the tool diameter used, among which the diameter range of CNC milling tools is 6-40 mm, while the diameter of CNC engraving tools is 0.2-3 mm.
2. Is CNC milling only capable of rough machining and CNC engraving only capable of fine machining?
Before answering this question, let's first understand the concept of process.Rough machining process processing amount is large, finishing processing amount is small, so some people habitually considered rough machining is "heavy cutting", finishing is considered as "light cutting".In fact, rough machining, semi-finishing and finishing are process concepts that represent different stages of processing.Therefore, the accurate answer to this question is that CNC milling can do heavy cutting, can do light cutting, and CNC engraving can only do light cutting.
3. Can CNC engraving do rough machining of steel materials?
Whether CNC engraving processing can process a certain material, mainly depends on the size of the tool.The cutting tool used in CNC engraving determines its maximum cutting capacity.If the mold shape allows the use of tools with diameters greater than 6 mm, it is strongly recommended that CNC milling be used first, followed by engraving to remove the remaining material.
4. Can engraving processing be completed by adding a speed increasing head to the spindle of CNC machining center?
Can't finish.This kind of product appeared at the exhibition two years ago, but could not finish the carving.The main reason is that CNC machining center design considered their own tool range, the overall structure is not suitable for carving processing.The main reason for this wrong idea is that they mistake the high-speed motorized spindle as the only feature of the engraving machine.
5. CNC engraving can use small diameter tools, can it replace edm?
No substitute.Although engraving has narrowed the tool diameter range for milling, small dies that used to be edm can now be sculpted.However, the length/diameter ratio of carving tools is generally about 5:1.When small diameter tools are used, only very shallow cavities can be processed, while edm process has almost no cutting force, as long as the electrode can be produced, the cavity can be processed.
6. What are the main factors affecting carving processing?
Mechanical processing is a more complex process, affecting its factors are more, mainly have the following points: machine tool characteristics, cutting tools, control system, material characteristics, processing technology, auxiliary fixture and surrounding environment.
7. What are the requirements of CNC engraving processing for the control system?
CNC engraving processing is milling, so the control system must have milling control ability.For small tool processing, feed forward function must be provided at the same time, path advance speed reduction, reduce the cutting frequency of small tool.At the same time, in the more smooth path segment to improve the speed of cutting, so as to improve the efficiency of carving.
8. What properties of the material will affect the processing?
The main factors affecting the carving performance of materials are material category, hardness and toughness.The material categories include metallic materials and nonmetallic materials.In general, the greater the hardness, the worse the processing, the greater the viscosity, the worse the processing.The more impurities, the worse the processing, the greater the hardness of particles in the material, the worse the processing.A general standard is: the higher the carbon content, the worse the processing, the higher the alloy content, the worse the processing, the higher the nonmetallic element content, the better the processing (but the nonmetallic content in general materials is strictly controlled).
9. Which materials are suitable for carving?
Non-metallic materials suitable for carving include plexiglass, resin, wood, etc. Non-metallic materials not suitable for carving include natural marble, glass, etc.Suitable for engraving metal materials include copper, aluminum, soft steel hardness less than HRC40, not suitable for engraving metal materials including quenching steel.
10. What is the impact of the tool itself on processing and how?
The factors that affect engraving include cutting tool material, geometric parameters and grinding technology.The tool material used in carving processing is hard alloy material, it is a kind of powder alloy, the main performance index that determines the material performance is the average diameter of the powder.The smaller the diameter, the more wear-resistant the tool, the more durable the tool.Tool sharpness mainly affects cutting force.The sharper the tool, the less cutting force, the smoother the machining, the higher the surface quality, but the less durable the tool.Therefore, the processing of different materials should choose different sharpness.Processing is soft and sticky materials, you need a sharp tool, when the processing material hardness is larger, to reduce the sharpness, improve the durability of the tool.But not too blunt, otherwise the cutting force is too large, affecting processing.The key factor of grinding tool is the number of grinding wheel.High mesh grinding wheel can produce finer cutting edge and improve tool durability effectively.The high mesh grinding wheel can produce a smoother back cutting surface and improve the cutting surface quality.
11. What is the tool life formula?
Tool life is mainly the tool life in the processing of steel materials.The empirical formula is :(T is the tool life, CT is the life parameter, VC is the cutting linear speed, f is the amount of cutting per red, P is the cutting depth).The linear cutting speed is the biggest one which affects the tool life.In addition, tool radial jump, tool grinding quality, tool material and coating, coolant will also affect the durability of the tool.
12. How to protect the carving machine equipment during the processing?
1) protect the instrument, don't let it too much by oil erosion.
2) pay attention to the control of flying debris, flying debris to the machine tool is very harmful, flying into the electric control cabinet will lead to a short circuit, flying into the guide rail will reduce the lead screw, guide rail life, so in the processing, the main part of the machine tool should be sealed.
3) when moving the lamp, do not pull the lamp holder, it is easy to break the lamp holder.
4) in the process of processing, do not close to the cutting area for observation, so as to avoid flying debris injury to the eyes.When the spindle motor is rotating, prohibit any operation on the work surface.
5) when opening and closing the machine door, do not slam it open and slam it shut. During finishing processing, shock vibration in the process of opening the door will lead to knife lines on the machined surface.
6) to give the spindle speed, after the beginning of processing, or as a result of the spindle from turning slowly, resulting in no desired speed began processing, motor suffocate.
7) it is forbidden to place any tool or workpiece on the beam of the machine tool.
8) it is strictly forbidden to place magnetic tools such as magnetic chuck and dial indicator seat on the electric control cabinet, otherwise the display will be damaged.
13. The phenomenon of holding out during the processing of new knife is very laborious. Which parameters should be adjusted at this time?
Machining is very laborious because the power of the spindle, torque can not withstand the current cutting parameters, reasonable approach is: re do the path, reduce the depth of cutting, cutting depth, trimming.If the overall machining time is less than 30 minutes, you can also improve the cutting state by adjusting the cutting speed.
14. What is the function of cutting fluid?
Pay attention to add cooling oil for metal processing.The function of cooling system is to take away the cutting heat and flying debris, and to lubricate the machining.The coolant will travel through the cutting zone, reducing the heat transferred to the cutter and motor and increasing their service life.Remove the flying debris to avoid secondary cutting.Lubrication can reduce cutting force and make machining more stable.In red copper processing, the choice of oily cutting fluid can improve the surface quality.
15. What are the stages of tool wear?
Tool wear is divided into three stages: initial wear, normal wear, rapid wear.In the early stage of the main wear tool wear reason is the temperature of the tool is low, and did not reach the best cutting temperature, at this time, the tool wear is mainly abrasive wear, such wear on the impact of the tool is relatively large, it is easy to lead to tool breakage.This stage is very dangerous. If not handled well, it may directly lead to tool collapse and failure.When the tool passes through the initial wear period, the cutting temperature of the tool reaches a certain value, which is the main wear is diffusion wear, its role is mainly to lead to local spalling.So, the wear is smaller and slower.When the wear to a certain extent, the tool failure, it entered a period of rapid wear.
16. Why and how should the tool be run in?
Above we said that the tool in the early wear stage, it is easy to collapse, in order to avoid the phenomenon of collapse, we have to run the tool.Gradually raise the cutting temperature of the cutter to a reasonable temperature.The experiments show that the same machining parameters are used to compare the machining.It can be seen that after running in, tool life increased by more than 2 times.
The method of run-in is to reduce the feeding speed by half while maintaining the reasonable spindle speed, and the processing time is about 5~10 minutes.Small value for soft materials and large value for hard metals.
17. How to judge severe tool wear?
The way to determine the severity of tool wear is:
1) listen to the processing sound, and a harsh cry appears;
2) listen to the voice of the main shaft, the main shaft appears obvious phenomenon of holding back;
3) feel the increase of vibration during processing, the spindle of the machine tool appears obvious vibration;
4) depending on the processing effect, the processed underside knife grain is good or bad (if the beginning stage is too deep).
When should I change my knife?
We should change the tool at the tool life limit of about 2/3 of the time.For example, the tool in 60 minutes of serious wear, the next processing, should start in 40 minutes to change the knife, and develop the habit of changing the knife regularly.
19. Can severely worn tools continue processing?
When the tool is badly worn, the cutting force can be increased to three times its normal value.The cutting force has a great influence on the service life of the spindle electrode.For example, when the cutting force is increased by three times, 10 minutes of processing is equivalent to the spindle in normal use of 10*33=270 minutes.
20. How to determine the protruding length of the tool during rough machining?
The shorter the extension length of the cutter, the better.However, in the actual processing, if too short to frequently adjust the length of the tool, so too affect the processing efficiency.So how to control the length of the tool in the actual processing?The principle is this: phi 3 diameter of the knife rod out 5mm can be normal processing.Phi 4 diameter pole extension of 7mm can be normal processing.Phi 6 diameter pole extension of 10mm can be normally processed.Try to go below these values when using the knife.If the length of the knife is greater than the above value, try to control the cutting depth in the tool wear, this is a little difficult to grasp, need more exercise.
21. How to deal with the sudden breaking knife during processing?
1) stop processing and check the current serial number of processing.
2) check the broken knife to see if there is a broken knife body, and take it out if there is.
3) analyze the reason why the knife broke, which is the most important, why the knife broke?We want to analyze will be said from above to affect the processing of various factors to analyze.But the reason it breaks is because the force on the tool suddenly increases.Or the path problem, or the tool jitter is too large, or the material has a hard block, or the spindle motor speed is not correct.
4) after analysis, replace the cutter for processing.If there is no change in the path, to the original serial number in advance of a serial number processing, at this time must pay attention to the feed speed will come down, one because of the severe hardening of the knife, the second is to carry out tool running.
22. How to adjust machining parameters when rough machining is not good?
If in the reasonable spindle speed, tool life can not be guaranteed, in the adjustment of parameters, to adjust the depth of cutting, first, then adjust the feed speed, and then adjust the lateral feed.(note: the adjustment of cutting depth is limited, if the cutting depth is too small, so too many layers, although the theoretical cutting efficiency is high, but the actual processing efficiency is affected by some other factors, resulting in the processing efficiency is too low, at this time should be a smaller tool for processing, but the processing efficiency is higher.Generally speaking, the minimum depth should not be less than 0.1mm.